Small covalent molecule of carbon and oxygen. Colourless, odourless gas that doesn't support combustion.
Macroscopic and Microscopic Examination The initial step in analysis is examination of the intact calculus before fracturing so that crystals, amorphous material, or foreign bodies adhering to or embedded in the surface can be observed.
The objective of fracturing is to make visible the nidus, the crystalline structure and the order of deposition of components. The true nidus is invisible because it is the first crystal or aggregate of crystals precipitated from solution and deposited at what eventually becomes the stone site.
An "apparent nidus" is either a region from which crystalline forms radiate or the geometric center surrounded by concentric laminations. The apparent nidus may be roughly in the center of the stone, or it may be closer to one pole, as in a staghorn calculus.
In calculi of mg. Following fracturing of the calculus, the order of deposition of components is determined including identification of an apparent nidus, or nidi, if present, and identification of other patterns whether homogeneous, or characterized by layered, concentric or radial deposition structure.
Nidi may form from precipitation of crystals from supersaturated urine, from microscopic debris in urine, from artifacts or foreign bodies, from drugs or drug metabolites, or from calcium plaques in the renal papillae.
Finding any of these components may give a clue to the pathogenesis of the stone. In the study of multiphase stones, each distinct phase may be separated for analysis.
Some components are sufficiently characteristic in appearance as to obviate further analysis, but incongruities in consistency, density, or pigmentation may indicate the presence of interstitial components, which need further elucidation by integrative methods.
X-Ray Diffractometry X-ray diffraction identifies the constituents of a calculus by their unique diffraction patterns or "fingerprints" produced by monochromatic x-ray bombardment of crystalline material.
The x-rays, when traveling intramolecular distances, are diffracted or reflected in characteristic patterns related to the structure of the crystals. The reflected x-rays may be used to produce a diffractogram composed of peaks or "maxima" registered as the sample rotates through a succession of angles.
This allows definite identification of an unknown crystalline substance. The major advantage of x-ray diffraction is its almost absolute identification of crystalline materials and mixtures of crystalline materials. When amorphous and crystalline substances are mixed, other methods may confuse the two as in the case of phosphatic calculi ; x-ray diffraction selectively identifies the crystalline components.
Common crystalline components of urinary calculi are all readily identifiable and potentially measurable by this method. Crystalline apatites may be identified but usually yield poor diffraction patterns because they are in a microcrystalline state and give broad, weak, diffraction bands.
Infrared Spectroscopy Infrared spectroscopy is specific, rapid, and versatile and can be used with specimens of various sizes. It uses a spectrophotometer which exposes sample molecules to infrared light. In the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, light is absorbed as the vibrational stretching and bending of groups of covalently bonded atoms occur in response to excitation at specific wavelengths.Fertilizers are chemical compounds applied to promote plant growth.
Typically, fertilizers are applied either to the soil (for uptake by plant roots) or by foliar feeding (for uptake through leaves).
Fertilizers can be placed into the categories of organic and inorganic . Introduction The Analysis of Oxygen-bearing Organic Compounds was used to identify the kind of alcohol, whether primary, secondary, or tertiary, or functional group present in the mixture.
This experiment focused on distinguishing the several kinds of functional groups from each other. A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
In the broadest sense, natural products include any substance produced by life. Natural products can also be prepared by chemical synthesis (both semisynthesis and total synthesis) and have played a central role in the development of the field of organic chemistry by providing.
Thermal analysis is an excellent method for characterizing organic compounds because many of their properties are temperature dependent. In this webinar, I want to describe a number of interesting application examples that demonstrate this.
Total Organic Carbon Teledyne Analytical Instruments On line Analysis of Organic in Water For years TOC analysis has been reserved for specialists.
The analysis and identification of unknown organic compounds constitutes a very important aspect of experimental organic chemistry.
There is no definite set procedure that can be generally applied to organic qualitative analysis.