Conics The following was graciously provided by Patty Ahmetaj. The source of the figures cited and much of this information is from Flattening the Earth:

There are many different ways of display the geography of the world, with the Robinson and Mercator projections amongst the most popular.

A map of the our world. Map projections are a systematic transformation of longitudes and latitudes of a location on the surface of the sphere.

Map projections are important in creating maps with map projections distorting the surface Conic projection map some way. Some of the distortions on the maps are acceptable while other distortions are not acceptable depending on the purpose of the map.

The map projection is classified depending on the type of projection surface on which the globe is projected conceptually. There are several map projections which preserve some of the properties of the sphere at the expense of others.

Types of Map Projections Cylindrical A cylindrical projection is any projection in which the meridians are mapped to parallel spaced vertical lines and latitudes are mapped to horizontal lines.

The projections stretch from east to west according to their geometric constructions and are the same at any chosen latitude.

The north to south stretching equals east to west but grows with latitude faster than east to west stretching in the case of central cylindrical projection. Mercator projection is an example of cylindrical projection which became a standard map projection because of its ability to represent lines of steady course.

Mercator distorts the size of geographical objects because its linear scale increases with the increase in latitude. The distortion caused by the Mercator distorts the perception of the entire planet by exaggerating the areas laying far from the equator.

Pseudocylindrical Pseudocylindrical projections present the meridian as a straight line while other parallels as sinusoidal curves which are longer than the central meridian.

The scaling of the pseudocylindrical projections are straight along the central meridian and also along the parallels. On a pseudocylindrical map, points further from the equator have higher latitudes than other points, preserving the north-south relationship. Pseudocylindrical projections include sinusoidal with same horizontal and vertical scales.

The Robinson projection was created to show the globe as a flat image readily. The projection is neither equal-area nor conformal because of the compromise to show the whole planet. The meridians of the Robinson projection curves are gently stretching the poles into long lines.

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Van der Grinten Projection Van der Grinten is a compromised projection which is neither equal-area nor conformal. It is an arbitrary scaled projection of the plane projecting the entire earth into a circle.

Van der Grinten projection preserves the image of Mercator projection and reduces its distortion.Mercator projection is an example of cylindrical projection which became a standard map projection because of its ability to represent lines of steady course.

Mercator distorts the size of geographical objects because its linear scale increases with the increase in latitude. A conformal conic projection was published by Johann Heinrich Lambert () in , and is called the Lambert Conformal Conic Projection.

Lambert was the inventor of the hyperbolic functions, and the first to study map projections scientifically. A conic projection is derived from the projection of the globe onto a cone placed over it.

For the normal aspect, the apex of the cone lies on the polar axis of the Earth. If the cone touches the Earth at just one particular parallel of latitude, it is called tangent.

The Three Main Families of Map Projections The following figure illustrates conic projection, diagramming its construction on the left, with an example on the right (Albers equal-area projection, polar aspect).

Some widely-used conic projections are. Albers Equal-area projection. conic projection - a map projection of the globe onto a cone with its point over one of the earth's poles conical projection map projection - a projection of the globe onto a . The conic projection with the easiest construction method is the simple or equidistant conic, with uniformly spaced parallels.

Neither equal-area nor conformal, except along the standard parallels, but an acceptable compromise for most temperate countries, it is the general case of both azimuthal equidistant and equidistant cylindrical projections.

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