Early life[ edit ] Burke was born in DublinIreland. Omernear CalaisFrance, and of harbouring secret Catholic sympathies at a time when membership of the Catholic Church would disqualify him from public office see Penal Laws in Ireland. As Burke told Frances Crewe: Omer—but this was false, as his father was a regular practitioner of the Law at Dublin, which he could not be unless of the Established Church:
British political philosopher and statesman. The following entry provides critical discussion of Burke's writing on political theory.
A philosopher and Edmund burke essay questions, Burke ranks as a preeminent figure in western political thought.
Long regarded as the father of modern conservatism, his career as a polemicist and politician spanned years of significant political turmoil in England and the West.
Writing and speaking passionately about actual and potential excesses of state authority, Burke espoused the desirability of limited, divided government. He feared the threat to liberty posed by concentrations of governmental power whether wielded autocratically by the Crown or Edmund burke essay questions by radical reformers in democratic assemblies.
Burke conceived of the state as a divinely-ordered hierarchy where an elite of property owners sitting in Parliament, mindful of tradition and owing allegiance to the past, would collectively posses the forbearance to govern wisely. While affirming the need for constitutional government to adjust to new circumstances, Burke believed that reform should be prudent, practical, and specific—not predicated on abstract theories of natural rights.
Writing in the Age of Enlightenment, Burke parted rank from such philosophers as John Locke, who championed a faith in the perfectibility of humankind and effectively erased the idea of original sin. Rejecting revolutionary change predicated on a facile faith in individual will, Burke held a particular disdain for Jean Jacques Rousseau, who argued that all rights and liberties were inherent in individuals in a pre-social state, and that political allegiance was a voluntary exercise that could be revoked if the state no longer served the general will of the people.
Although his age was one of increasing secularization and faith in individual volition, Burke's political philosophy had deep religious underpinnings as he believed that the original covenant between God and man both prefigured and predestined the nature of all social contracts.
Thus, government had a positive duty to provide a moral framework for the cultivation of a virtuous society. Burke's spirited and thoughtful defense of faith, order, and historical continuity distinguish his contribution to political thought, while his eloquence and cogency continue to engage new readers in each generation.
His Irish heritage and the influence of his mother's Catholicism played an important role in defining his political attitudes and shaping his moral sensibilities. He attended a Quaker school in Dublin before graduating from Trinity College with a degree in Classics.
At his father's urging, Burke went to London in to study law, but soon became captivated by literary and philosophical pursuits. Much to his father's disappointment, Burke never joined the bar. Soon married and a father himself, Burke was unable to support his family solely by writing and editing, even though his literary talents were championed by such writers as Samuel Johnson.
To increase his financial security, Burke first turned to politics inwhen he enlisted in the service of the Earl of Halifax.
But his political future was decisively cast when he became the private Secretary to the Marquis of Rockingham, Charles Watson Wentworth. A prominent Whig, Lord Rockingham led the conservative opposition party most favored by the Crown.
Burke's alliance with the influential leader led to his securing a seat in Parliament inwhere he soon established a reputation as a gifted orator and thoughtful statesman. While Burke focused much of his energy on domestic politics, he was frequently preoccupied with events outside of Britain.
He was especially sympathetic to the complaints of the American colonists in their grievances over the Crown's taxation policies, insisting that much of the colonists's discontent stemmed from their perception that, as the descendants of Englishmen, their rights and liberties were being infringed.
Burke also took up the cause of Indian subjects under British rule. In his speeches he continually railed against Parliament for its failure to provide proper oversight to the Indian population. For seven years Burke played a major and often controversial role in the long impeachment trial of Governour Warren Hastings for alleged abuses and neglect of the basic needs of the Indian subjects under his charge.
Burke insisted that governments had positive obligations to colonized people, whether that meant building roads, schools, or hospitals. Burke's attitudes were shaped in part by his status as an outsider, for his Irish ancestry had precluded full acceptance into British society.
Having a lifelong interest in the plight of the Irish, Burke especially criticized the Crown's penal laws, which were harshly punitive to Catholics in limiting their ability to amass wealth. As a statesman, he believed in voting in the interest of the entire realm, and refused to be influenced by the narrow interests of any one borough; as a result, he often grew unpopular with local constituencies whose concerns were naturally parochial.
Thus he was unable to permanently hold onto any single seat in Parliament, and never achieved much personal political power. Yet Burke's writings and speeches were widely read throughout the West during much of his lifetime, and, despite never achieving high office, he enjoyed widespread acknowledgment of his work, and publicly debated through pamphlets with such men as Thomas Paine.
After Hastings was acquitted in his impeachment trial inBurke resigned from Parliament and retired to his rural estate in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, where he kept up correspondence and writing before succumbing to stomach cancer within three years.
Major Works Burke's allegiance to the Whigs meant that he was politically allied with the minority party through almost all his tenure in Parliament.Reflections On the Revolution In France Edmund Burke Reflections On the Revolution In France literature essays are academic essays for citation.
These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Reflections On the Revo. Edmund Burke was at once a chief exponent of the Ciceronian doctrine of natural law and a chief opponent of the “rights of man.” and with that law, rights; such, succinctly, is Burke’s premise in all moral and juridical questions.
The religion of Edmund Burke is a very interesting topic which cannot be examined in detail here; but it. Edmund Burke, one of the great statesmen and philosophers of the 18th century, is the founder of modern conservatism. Or so it is commonly held: authorities, from Corey Robin on the left to Niall Ferguson on the right, agree that conservative ideology can be traced to this original source.
Edmund Burke Essays: Over , Edmund Burke Essays, Edmund Burke Term Papers, Edmund Burke Research Paper, Book Reports. ESSAYS, term and research papers available for UNLIMITED access.
Published: Mon, 5 Dec Edmund Burke is a philosopher who lived between the years and He defended Ireland society when they had been resisting of British domination, criticized British East India Company for demolishing Indian traditions and their historical privileges, also supported to American independence against Britannia.
Burke championed rational parliamentary discussion, which provided the right answers to political questions. And as a participant, the representatives need not consult the voters. They would enjoy complete freedom, for they have no interest other than the national interest.