Monism and Mind—body dualism Metaphysical pluralism in philosophy is the multiplicity of metaphysical models of the structure and content of reality, both as it appears and as logic dictates that it might be,  as is exhibited by the four related models in Plato's Republic  and as developed in the contrast between phenomenalism and physicalism. It is similar to the many-worlds interpretation. Pluralism is in contrast to the concept of monism in metaphysics, while dualism is a limited form, a pluralism of exactly two models, structures, elements, or concepts.
What are the necessary and sufficient conditions for S to know that p? We may distinguish, broadly, between a traditional and a non-traditional approach to answering this question.
False propositions cannot be known. Therefore, knowledge requires truth. A proposition S doesn't even believe can't be a proposition that S knows.
Therefore, knowledge requires Epistemological essays. Finally, S's being correct in believing that Epistemological essays might merely be a matter of luck. Thus we arrive at a tripartite analysis of knowledge as JTB: S knows that p if and only if p is true and S is justified in believing that p.
According to this analysis, the three conditions — truth, belief, and justification — are individually necessary and jointly sufficient for knowledge.
They diverge, however, as soon as we proceed to be more specific about exactly how justification is to fulfill this role. According to TK, S's belief that p is true not merely because of luck when it is reasonable or rational, from S's own point of view, to take p to be true.
According to evidentialism, what makes a belief justified in this sense is the possession of evidence. The basic idea is that a belief is justified to the degree it fits S's evidence.
NTK, on the other hand, conceives of the role of justification differently. Its job is to ensure that S's belief has a high objective probability of truth and therefore, if true, is not true merely because of luck. One prominent idea is that this is accomplished if, and only if, a belief originates in reliable cognitive processes or faculties.
This view is known as reliabilism. There are cases of JTB that do not qualify as cases of knowledge. JTB, therefore, is not sufficient for knowledge. Cases like that — known as Gettier-cases[ 5 ] — arise because neither the possession of evidence nor origination in reliable faculties is sufficient for ensuring that a belief is not true merely because of luck.
Consider the well-known case of barn-facades: Henry drives through a rural area in which what appear to be barns are, with the exception of just one, mere barn facades. From the road Henry is driving on, these facades look exactly like real barns. Henry happens to be looking at the one and only real barn in the area and believes that there's a barn over there.
Henry's belief is justified, according to TK, because Henry's visual experience justifies his belief. According to NTK, his belief is justified because Henry's belief originates in a reliable cognitive process: Yet Henry's belief is plausibly viewed as being true merely because of luck.
Had Henry noticed one of the barn-facades instead, he would also have believed that there's a barn over there. There is, therefore, broad agreement among epistemologists that Henry's belief does not qualify as knowledge.
This is known as the Gettier problem.Epistemology. Epistemology is the study of initiativeblog.commologists concern themselves with a number of tasks, which we might sort into two categories.
First, we must determine the nature of knowledge; that is, what does it mean to say that someone knows, or fails to know, something? This is a matter of understanding what knowledge is, and how to distinguish between cases in which someone.
Epistemology Essay Descartes uses epistemology and metaphysics to frame his famous "cogito" argument. But in order to understand how that works, first, we must discuss the differences between an epistemological and a metaphysical question.
Epistemology is a facet of philosophy interested in knowledge. And an epistemological . David Hume (—) “Hume is our Politics, Hume is our Trade, Hume is our Philosophy, Hume is our Religion.” This statement by nineteenth century philosopher James Hutchison Stirling reflects the unique position in intellectual thought held by Scottish philosopher David Hume.
Part of Hume’s fame and importance owes to his boldly skeptical approach to a range of philosophical subjects.
Epistemological definition, pertaining to epistemology, a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge. See more.
Free data analysis papers, essays, and research papers. Introduction. Individual decision-making about consumption has been the subject of many theories and approaches. In this paper, we are interested to propose some steps to include consumer decision making and behaviour in formal models, trying to do this in a .