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First, the metamodel contained in Figure I postulates that behavioral responses R constitute the dependent variable explicandum of psychological research.
Substantive examples for these three paradigms are the attempts to explain and predict a given dependent variable, say, "anxiety" in terms of other response categories e. Third, the metamodel contained in Figure I states that variable relationships can be concurrent C or historical H.
In other words, the attempt to account for a given target variable or consequent behavior can be based on antecedent variables that are concurrent to, or at least in an antecedent proximity to, the target variable: The latter historical relationships, involving significant time differentials between the consequent and antecedent conditions, are sometimes called "distal" relationships.
A substantive example of the distinction between a concurrent and historical relationship is the attempt to predict "anxiety" either by reference to exposure to a concurrent anxiety-provoking stimulus situation e.
Finally, the developmental formulation shown in Figure I states that the major task of developmental research is the explication of intraindividual change and interindividual differences in intraindividual change the consequent by reference to time-related interactions between response, organismic, and stimulus variables.
It is the product of such long-term interactions that defines the behavior of an individual and interindividual differences at a given point in time T.
Note in this context that Tt and Tt-1 parallel concurrent and historical relationships respectively: Obviously, this view of research paradigms is incomplete. On the one hand, it is apparent that for any given response category, there may be a multitude of concurrent and historical antecedents in operation which are not necessarily based on a fixed set of elements as is expressed in the multivariate format paradigm contained in Figure 1.
On the other hand, we need to clarity precisely how historical conditions the nature of f and g are translated or transmitted info the present context.
However, it is indeed this notion of a changing system of antecedent-consequent relationships operating over time to produce a given behavior product e. Therefore, in the following an attempt is made to pinpoint which aspects of the described paradigms are fertile for developmental considerations and, at the same time, which aspects of these paradigms specify the unique aspects of a life-span approach to the study of aging.
Life Span Developmental Paradigms and Aging Thus far, it has been stated that a developmental, life-span view of psychological aging, if translated info empirical operations, must employ historical paradigms. Conversely, it may be said that if concurrent, contemporaneous paradigms are sufficient to account for aging phenomena, a life-span view is not particularly exciting.
Moreover, it is maintained that a lifespan or a developmental orientation in general view must focus on a cumulative process analysis of response-organismic-stimulus man-environment systems.
In order to examine the usefulness of such a historical, cumulative view of psychological aging, the following discussion proceeds in two steps. First, some general objectives of developmental theory building will be described in terms of the research paradigms presented.
Second, a set of questions prototypical of life-span research on aging will be derived and briefly examined in light of empirical data taken primarily from the area of research on intelligence.
The reader may want to apply similar principles when digesting the content of the other symposium contributions. General Objectives of Developmental Research The frame of reference for the prototypical questions to be discussed is that, ideally, the scope, precision, and deployment of theories should allow one to describe, explain, and modify a given phenomenon as described in Baltes and Goulet Moreover, it was asserted in that paper that, in terms of components of variance, developmental research is aimed at describing and predicting both intraindividual change and interindividual differences in intraindividual change.
How con these objectives of developmental research be explicated by reference to the research paradigms described above? Note again that the following is intended to have primarily didactic and not philosophical value. This aspect of the task of theory building involves the left part of the paradigms in Figure I and those components of the right part which deal with response systems.
In other words, the question of description is one of a identifying the response categories R 1, Often, the initial attempt at description focuses on age functional relationships. In principle, however, it is the ordered, time-related sequence of behavior events that lie at the core of developmental description e.
As long as the time-related behavior sequences described are of the R-R type, even though they involve historical relationships, one may argue that such statements are primarily oriented towards predictive rather than explanatory description.
However, this distinction is a matter of taste rather than logical necessity. Explanation and prediction of development. The central question is which antecedent conditions S, O, R or processes learning, maturation, etc.
While in description the primary focus is on unbiased observation, the emphasis in explanatory or analytic analysis is on the evaluation of the explanatory value of variable relationships in accounting for intraindividual change and interindividual differences in such change sequences.
In this context, it does not seem worthwhile to dwell on the relative merits of other aspects of explanatory analysis such as whether the strategy chosen is 'constructive" or "reductive.
The task of explanation becomes predictive when a given variable relationship is used to project into the future as opposed to into the past. The approach toward explanation and prediction is developmental, if the nature of the variable relationships is such that distal historical events or processes are linked to each other in the attempt to account for individual differences that exist at a given point in time.
The multivariate expansion of the develop mental paradigm contained in Figure I paints to another complicating feature of such a developmental analysis related to the issue of continuity-discontinuity models.A Reappraisal Study of IT and the Development of Iranian EFL Learners' Writing Skills Hossein Najjari Department of English Islamic Azad University, Gonabad Branch, that involves four main stages i.e., planning, drafting, revising The researcher first sent each task to all participants via the e-mail.
Three days later, the researcher. The actual data mining task is the semi-automatic or automatic analysis of large quantities of data to extract previously unknown, interesting patterns such as groups of data records (cluster analysis), unusual records (anomaly detection), and dependencies .
DeVry HIST Final Exam. Question (TCO 1) Historical research involves four main tasks. Discoverrefers to the task of: (Points: 4) locating primary sources to learn the facts.
information and discover knowledge on the premise of no clear Data mining often involves the analysis of data stored in a data warehouse. Three of the major data mining techniques are Data mining commonly involves four classes of tasks:  Clustering - is the task .
(TCO 1) Historical research involves four main tasks. Discoverrefers to the task of: (Points: 4) Preview: task xxx (Points x 4)locating primary xxxxxxx to learn xxx factsasking xxxxxxxxx xxxx "Who xxxxxxx the source xxx why?"analyzing all xxx available xxxxxxx xxxxxxx and xxxxxxx which is xxx most accuratedistributing xxx new xxxxxxxx xx.
Erik Erikson developed the theory in the s as an improvement on Sigmund Freud's psychosexual initiativeblog.comn accepted many of Freud's theories (including the id, ego, and superego, and Freud's infantile sexuality represented in psychosexual development), but rejected Freud's attempt to describe personality solely on the basis of sexuality.