Less well remembered, especially outside of Japan, is a different image of the empire, of a vast collection of territories that was home to diverse peoples, climates, geographies, flora and fauna.
Cultural Imperialism or Rescue? The collection of the Imperial Hotel, Janpath, New Delhi, reproduced by kind permission of the hotel. Click on all the images here for larger pictures.
The self-immolation of recently bereaved wives on their husbands' funeral pyres confronted the British in India with central questions about the obligations of the colonizer to the colonized, respect for other cultures, and questions of gender that had important implications for British women.
In India, the individuals who sacrificed themselves in this way were called satis, from the Sanskrit word for "a good woman," by association with the goddess Sati.
In Hindu mythology, Sati is the wife of Shiva, and she immolates herself in protest against her father's lack of respect for her husband. In one telling, her faithfulness is such that she feels no pain from the fire.
Of course, since Siva himself is immortal, no version of the myth ever really fits the ritual as it Imperialism in asia essay see Hawley, Introduction, More analogous to it, perhaps, were the self-immolations of the Rajput women of Rajasthan, who in earlier times chose this way of preserving their and their husbands' honour when their menfolk went off to battle.
But here again there were great differences. These women's husbands, too, were not yet dead, and a jauhar, as the preemptive act was called, was a communal one involving children, the sick and the elderly as well.
Still, like Sati, both the Rajput wives of olden days and the satis were seen to demonstrate the extreme of wifely devotion. Suttee or "widow-burning," as the British called it, became a subject of much concern to the new administrators.
As time went by, it acquired a peculiar resonance for them, and for those in the home country as well. As well as raising uncomfortable and challenging issues about the role and duties of the British in India, it called into question the self-abnegation expected of women in Britain itself, prompting some reflections on the very nature of service and self-sacrifice, especially in the colonial context.
Today, thanks largely to the Kolkata-born cultural theorist Gayatri Spivak, it has again become a hot topic among postcolonial and feminist critics. Background Suttee could not just be abolished overnight. As its association with myth suggests, it was deeply rooted in the culture.
It goes back to ancient times among various peoples, with instances recorded among the Thracians, Malaysians and others. An early account of its enactment by Indian widows appears in the Greek historian Diodorus, where it is dated as occurring in BC Yule and Burnell Besides noting its connection with the goddess Sati, the Victorians held various theories about it.
The most sympathetic was that it started from "the voluntary sacrifice of a widow, inconsolable for the loss of her husband But some saw cruelty in it from the start, suggesting that it arose from "a dread on the part of the chiefs of the country, in olden time, that their principal wives, who alone were in possession of their confidence, and knew where their money was concealed, might secretly attempt their life, in order at once to establish their own freedom, and become possessed of the [i.
Whatever the origin, other ideas had gathered around the practice — for example, that those who chose to die in this way not only displayed wifely virtue at the time, but would continue to serve their husbands in the afterlife; and, still more curiously to western observers, that the woman's action would expiate the sins of her husband's family.
Such ideas had produced a cult predicated on suttee's "magical efficacy," as one social historian puts it Weinberger-Thomasbut at the same time left the custom open to abuse. Instead of being a matter of choice, suttee might be enjoined, the woman cruelly coerced by those who stood to gain by her death, whether the gain lay simply in family honour, or in more tangible assets.
Does this engraving show such a victim? There is not much to help us here. In some accounts, the woman wears wedding finery, since suttee was seen as a final consummation of the marriage see Hawley, Afterword, But this woman is seen only at the last, decisive moment, her hair flowing loose, wearing the simple white sari that was the usual mark of widowhood.
(This essay is excerpted and modified from Teaching About Women in China and Japan, by Lyn Reese, found in Social Education, NCSS, March ) (the Ch’ien T’ao poem is from Kenneth Rexroth & Ling Chung, Women Poets of China, New Directions Book, ). American imperialism is a policy aimed at extending the political, economic, and cultural control of the United States government over areas beyond its boundaries. It can be accomplished in any number of ways: by military conquest, by treaty, by subsidization, by economic penetration through private companies followed by intervention when those . Imperialism of Africa and Asia had both good and bad effects. The people of Africa and Asia may not have directly benefited from imperialism, but overall what happened was necessary for the continents to compete with the rest of the world.
There are no female supporters — but they would not have been allowed at this point. The man immediately behind her would be the officiating Brahmin. He might be actively helping her on her way — or simply letting her go.
The log in the foreground might be ready for use during the ritual: Laying the pile in a pit was supposed to perform the latter function too."Imperialism" isn't quite what I expected. I knew that it presented Joseph Schumpeter's views on the social and economic origins of imperialism.
WHY DO WE LIE ABOUT. TELLING THE TRUTH? “I put his head sort of on my lap. I just hoped and prayed he was still alive. It was hard to tell.
|Cultural Imperialism or Rescue? The British and Suttee||Time and again, foreigners forced China to make humiliating concessions.|
This tradition of US-led regime change has been part and parcel of US foreign policy in other parts of the world, including Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia.
Imperialism In Africa And Asia Essay Sample. Imperialism of Africa and Asia had both good and bad effects. The people of Africa and Asia may not have directly benefited from imperialism, but overall what happened was necessary for the continents to compete with the rest of the world.
The original meaning of imperialism was a simple one: "imperial government," that is, empire in the classical sense (such as existed in ancient Rome, China, and Greece). In more recent times, imperialism has become synonymous with western hegemony in Africa and Asia from the 18th through the 20th centuries and with the spreading .
American imperialism is a policy aimed at extending the political, economic, and cultural control of the United States government over areas beyond its boundaries. It can be accomplished in any number of ways: by military conquest, by treaty, by subsidization, by economic penetration through private companies followed by intervention when those interests are threatened, or by regime change.