Pin-yin, the English form of Chinese In an attempt to make the Chinese language more understandable to the western world, China developed the "pinyin" pin-yin system. Chinese languages have been transliterated into the pinyin system since 5 except personal and location names. InChinese officials made a formal request to the United Nations UN 6 to use the pinyin system for naming geographical locations in China.
Final retroflex r is written r. Pinyin is used in the following discussion of Modern Standard Chinese grammar. There are equational sentences with the word order subject—predicate—e.
There are three tones high, mid, low in syllables ending in -p, -t, and -k; six tones occur in other types of syllables mid level, low level, high falling, low falling, high rising, low rising. There is no neutral tone and little tonal sandhi modification. There are more than 2, different syllables in Standard Cantonese, or almost twice as many as in Modern Standard Chinese.
The word classes are the same as in Modern Standard Chinese. The grammatical words, although phonetically unrelated, generally have the same semantic value e. A classifier preceding a noun in subject position before the verb functions as a definite article e.
The initial consonants are the same as in Standard Cantonese with the addition of two voiced stops b and d and one voiced affricate dzdeveloped from original nasals. There are two tones in syllables ending in a stopfive in other syllables.
Tonal sandhi operates in many combinations. Fuzhou is the most important language of the Northern branch of Min. The very extensive sandhi affects not only tones but also consonants and vowels, so that the phonetic manifestation of a syllable depends entirely on interaction with the surroundings.
The tones fall into two classes: Certain vowels and diphthongs occur only with the high class, others occur only with the low class, and the vowel a occurs with both classes.
Sandhi rules can cause tone to change from low class to high class, in which case the vowel also changes. It has the same initial consonants, final consonants, and syllabic nasals as Standard Cantonese; the vowels are similar to those of Modern Standard Chinese.
Medial and final semivowels are y and w. There are two tones in syllables with final stops, four in the other syllabic types. Suzhou Suzhou vernacular is usually quoted as representative of the Wu language s.
It is rich in initial consonants, with a contrast of voiced and voiceless stops as well as palatalized and nonpalatalized dental affricates, making 26 consonants in all. Palatalized sounds are formed from nonpalatal sounds by simultaneous movement of the tongue toward the hard palate.
Dental affricates are sounds produced with the tongue tip at first touching the teeth and then drawing slightly away to allow air to pass through, producing a hissing sound.
Medial semivowels are as in Modern Standard Chinese. Shanghai dialect The Shanghai dialect belongs to Wu. The use of only two tones or registers high and low is prevalent; these are related in an automatic way to the initial consonant type voiceless and voiced.
Xiang languages The Xiang languages, spoken only in Hunanare divided into New Xiangwhich is under heavy influence from Mandarin and includes the language of the capital Changsha, and Old Xiangmore similar to the Wu languages, as spoken for instance in Shuangfeng.
Old Xiang has 28 initial consonants, the highest number for any major Sinitic language, and 11 vowels, plus the syllabic consonants m and n.
Historical survey of Chinese The early contacts Old Chinese vocabulary already contained many words not generally occurring in the other Sino-Tibetan languages. A number of words have Austroasiatic cognates and point to early contacts with the ancestral language of Muong-Vietnamese and Mon-Khmer —e.
It has been suggested that a great many cultural words that are shared by Chinese and Tai are Chinese loanwords from Tai. Clearly, the Chinese received many aspects of culture and many concepts from the Austroasiatic and Austro-Tai peoples whom they gradually conquered and absorbed or expelled.
Sinitic languages have been remarkably resistant to direct borrowing of foreign words. In modern times this has led to an enormous increase in Chinese vocabulary without a corresponding increase in basic meaningful syllables.
The reason that China has avoided the incorporation of foreign words is first and foremost a phonetic one; such words fit very badly into the Chinese pattern of pronunciation. A contributing factor has been the Chinese scriptwhich is ill-adapted to the process of phonetic loans.
It is characteristic of Modern Standard Chinese that the language from which it most freely borrows is one from its own past: In recent years it has borrowed from Southern Sinitic languages under the influence of statesmen and revolutionaries Chiang Kai-shek was originally a Wu speaker and Mao Zedong a Xiang speaker.Google's free service instantly translates words, phrases, and web pages between English and over other languages.
Nov 18, · Chinese languages, also called Sinitic languages, Chinese Han, principal language group of eastern Asia, belonging to the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chinese exists in a number of varieties that are popularly called dialects but that are usually classified as separate languages by scholars. Aug 31, · Whenever you add a language, a keyboard layout or input method is added so you can enter text in the language.
If you want to use a different keyboard layout or input method, you can add a new one or switch between the ones you have. Add a keyboard layout or input method for a language. Aug 31, · Whenever you add a language, a keyboard layout or input method is added so you can enter text in the language.
If you want to use a different keyboard layout or input method, you can add a new one or switch between the ones you have. Add a keyboard layout or input method for a language. I don't know. Do I?
But then, this question is almost frustratingly vague. Does it refer to someone like me, who is ethnically Chinese, but grew up in a predominantly English speaking environment? Does it refer to a Chinese national who grew up in.
The Chinese language policy in mainland China is heavily influenced by the Soviet nationalities policy and officially encourages the development of standard spoken and written languages for each of the nationalities of China.
Chinese language use. Canberra: Contemporary China Centre, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian .