The mechanics of the 1720s schemes

Odysseus and the SirensUlixes mosaic at the Bardo National Museum in TunisTunisia, 2nd century AD As civilizations around the Mediterranean grew in size and complexity, both their navies and the galleys that made up their numbers became successively larger.

The mechanics of the 1720s schemes

It contained the small town of Lydney with an adjoining village called Newerne, the village of Aylburton, and scattered farmsteads in the tithings of Purton, Nass, and Allaston.

The mechanics of the 1720s schemes

Aylburton developed separate institutions of parish government and assumed the status of a civil parish in the late 19th century, while remaining a chapelry of Lydney. Although Lydney had a market from and some inhabitants later held by burgage tenure, the town remained small and insignificant for much of its history.

The parish was dominated by its landowners, particularly after the late 16th century when most of the land was formed into a large estate by the Winters, who were succeeded in possession by the Bathursts in The estate was unusually rich in non-agricultural resources, including fisheries, mineral deposits, and extensive woodland, and its owners also profited from the establishment of ironworks at the start of the 17th century and the reclamation of saltmarsh in the early 18th.

In the early 19th century the building of a tramroad and harbour to serve the coal trade of the Forest of Dean began to transform Lydney's economy, which later benefited from the growth of the ironworks into a tinplate factory and from railway building.

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In the mid 20th century the town's success in attracting new industry made it one of the main centres of employment for the Forest region, and by it had been much enlarged by suburbs. The ancient parish covered 7, a.

Former parts of the royal demesne woodland adjoining the parish, the Snead later called Maple Hill and Kidnalls, covering c. The two woods were granted on lease by the Crown infn.

They remained extraparochial until when they were included in the new township of West Dean. At its west end above Alvington parish it includes the former Prior's Mesne estate, which was assarted from the royal demesne of the Forest in by Llanthony priory.

Prior's Mesne was claimed by the lords of both manors in the s fn. About the owners of the two manors were disputing common land lying south of Prior's Mesne at the later Glebe farm and it was claimed on the part of the owner of Aylburton that the boundary at that point was Woodwards brook running west and south of the disputed land; fn.

It was no longer discernible in but on part of the boundary, south of the house called Aylburton Lodge, there was a drystone wall of massive dimensions, apparently part of a longer wall built following the dispute.

The boundary between the civil parish formerly chapelry or tithing of Aylburton and the rest of the ancient parish descends Park brook beside Lydney woods and park and crosses the level to the Severn by an irregular course, which was partly determined after alterations in the river bank.

On the Severn the land ends in river cliffs, which are at their steepest between the wood called Warren grove and the headland called Nass Point, upstream of the entrance to Lydney harbour.

The level is formed of alluvium, the east and central areas of the Old Red Sandstone, and the higher ground to the north-west of Drybrook Sandstone with the coal measures above; in Aylburton tithing there is also an intervening band of carboniferous limestone.

The inner edge of the level is most clearly defined below Aylburton village, where a branch of Park brook follows it to a place called Stockwell green, m. To the north-east, the excavation of a Roman villa, c. The physical evidence suggests that most of the level, extending to a line some way south-east of the mid 19th-century South Wales railway, was won from the river within the Romano— British period.

Of the remains of the sea walls actually earthen banks traversing the level, one crossing the Stirts from Cone Pill to Wose Pill probably marks the line of an early-medieval river bank. From Wose Pill a long sea wall ran north-eastwards to the site of the early 19th-century Lydney harbour, fn.

It is suggested that the sea wall was built to contain an early-medieval inundation of the level. The addition of land to the level was apparently in progress once more by the early 14th century.

A acre pasture called the New Stirts was recorded in fn. By the mid 16th century a narrow strip of land called Aylburton Warth fn. In the early 19th century Aylburton Warth, including the silted pill, covered c.

A later major addition was land called the New Grounds in front of the Marsh. The original pattern has been much altered by the changing river bank, the needs of the Lydney ironworks, and by the building of the new harbour.

At the start of the 19th century the Newerne stream fn. Lower Forge was also supplied by a stream which rose on Red hill, north-east of Lydney park, and served an iron furnace near the point where it crossed the Chepstow road, and, by the late 17th century, by a long leat which branched from the Newerne stream north of the Chepstow road.

The canal, usually known as the Cut, runs close to the Newerne stream in the upper part of its course but in its lower course, which presumably adapted the existing leat, it takes a more direct line some way west of the stream, crossing the Chepstow road between Lydney and Newerne; from Lower Forge there was also a short branch of the canal down to the head of Lydney Pill.

By the Eastern Way had silted up, while the main channel, which by the early 20th century entered the river some way above its old mouth, was reduced in size and distinguished from the many drainage ditches crossing the level only by its sinuous course.

After the silting of the pill the combined brook took a circuitous course along the north-west side of Aylburton Warth to Cone Pill. In the eastern part of the parish the pattern of ancient, inclosed farms, including one named Hurst, fn.

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